The exact time and place of Plato's birth are not known, but it is certain that he belonged to an aristocratic and influential family. Based on ancient sources, most modern scholars believe that he was born in Athens or Aegina[b] between 429 and 423 BC.[a] His father was Ariston. According to a disputed tradition, reported by Diogenes Laertius, Ariston traced his descent from the king of Athens, Codrus, and the king of Messenia, Melanthus. Plato's mother was Perictione, whose family boasted of a relationship with the famous Athenian lawmaker and lyric poet Solon. Perictione was sister of Charmides and niece of Critias, both prominent figures of the Thirty Tyrants, the brief oligarchic regime, which followed on the collapse of Athens at the end of the Peloponnesian War (404–403 BC). Besides Plato himself, Ariston and Perictione had three other children; these were two sons, Adeimantus and Glaucon, and a daughter Potone, the mother of Speusippus (the nephew and successor of Plato as head of his philosophical Academy). According to the Republic, Adeimantus and Glaucon were older than Plato. Nevertheless, in his Memorabilia, Xenophon presents Glaucon as younger than Plato.
The traditional date of Plato's birth (428/427) is based on a dubious interpretation of Diogenes Laertius, who says, "When [Socrates] was gone, [Plato] joined Cratylus the Heracleitean and Hermogenes, who philosophized in the manner of Parmenides. Then, at twenty-eight, Hermodorus says, [Plato] went to Euclides in Megara." As Debra Nails argues, "The text itself gives no reason to infer that Plato left immediately for Megara and implies the very opposite." In his Seventh Letter, Plato notes that his coming of age coincided with the taking of power by the Thirty, remarking, "But a youth under the age of twenty made himself a laughingstock if he attempted to enter the political arena." Thus, Nails dates Plato's birth to 424/423.
According to some accounts, Ariston tried to force his attentions on Perictione, but failed in his purpose; then the god Apollo appeared to him in a vision, and as a result, Ariston left Perictione unmolested. Another legend related that, when Plato was an infant, bees settled on his lips while he was sleeping: an augury of the sweetness of style in which he would discourse about philosophy.
Ariston appears to have died in Plato's childhood, although the precise dating of his death is difficult. Perictione then married Pyrilampes, her mother's brother, who had served many times as an ambassador to the Persian court and was a friend of Pericles, the leader of the democratic faction in Athens. Pyrilampes had a son from a previous marriage, Demus, who was famous for his beauty. Perictione gave birth to Pyrilampes' second son, Antiphon, the half-brother of Plato, who appears in Parmenides.[
The Ancient Greek philosophers have played a pivotal role in the shaping of the western philosophical tradition. This article surveys the seminal works and ideas of key figures in the Ancient Greek philosophical tradition from the Presocratics to the Neoplatonists. It highlights their main philosophical concerns and the evolution in their thought from the sixth century BCE to the sixth century CE.
The Ancient Greek philosophical tradition broke away from a mythological approach to explaining the world, and it initiated an approach based on reason and evidence. Initially concerned with explaining the entire cosmos, the Presocratic philosophers strived to identify its single underlying principle. Their theories were diverse and none achieved a consensus, yet their legacy was the initiation of the quest to identify underlying principles.
This sparked a series of investigations into the limit and role of reason and of our sensory faculties, how knowledge is acquired and what knowledge consists of. Here we find the Greek creation of philosophy as “the love of wisdom,” and the birth of metaphysics, epistemology, and ethics. Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle were the most influential of the ancient Greek philosophers, and they focused their attention more on the role of the human being than on the explanation of the material world. The work of these key philosophers was succeeded by the Stoics and Epicureans who were also concerned with practical aspects of philosophy and the attainment of happiness. Other notable successors are Pyrrho‘s school of skepticism and the Neoplatonists such as Plotinus who tried to unify Plato’s thought with theology.
The Art of War was written during China's Spring and Autumn period. This period could be likened to the pre-World War II Europe. Small dukedoms and kingdoms had been consolidated in previous conflicts. Only a few, large kingdoms remained in a state of tension with one another. There was peace, but everyone knew it wouldn't last. It didn't. Eventually wars broke out that lasted hundreds of years for what came to be called the Warring States Period.
Nevertheless, for the time being there was peace and prosperity. Around this time, several philosophies were developed that later greatly influenced China and the world. Confucius was travelling around, not very far from Sun Tzu. His ideas eventually came to dominated Chinese Rulers' methods as 'Confucianism'. Lao Tzu's philosophy was transcribed into the Tao Te Ching, eventually becoming Taoism. The Buddha was teaching in India. His teachings came to China where they were China-ized into Zen and Pure Land Buddhism. Sun Tzu's book developed a life of its own, finding its way into the hands of Chinese General centuries after his death.
These ideas were much discussed during the Spring and Autumn Period, but really came into their own during the following Warring States Period. The Rulers knew that the constant killing and war couldn't continue, but lacked the means to stop it. Eventually Confucianism and Sun Tzu came to the fore. It was a great combination because Confucius generally refused to speak on the issue of war claiming ignorance of it. Sun Tzu filled the gap. Importantly, Confucius did not deny the occasional necessity of war, although, like Sun Tzu, he felt it was extremely, undesirable.
Among the most popular posts here on Light Stalking are our Photoshop tutorials. So in the spirit of everything photoshop, here are some might cool blogs with Photoshop tutorials for both photographers and designers that you should be following.
1. Worth1000 - Rarely will you find a community as helpful, informative, and dedicated to learning as that on Worth1000. This site hosts daily contests for beginning and advanced Photoshop users and has a well-stocked library of Photoshop tutorials which cannot be found elsewhere. But it is in the forums of this site that most of the learning happens. Every question anyone asks is answered and often elaborated upon. Members are encouraged to have discussions on various techniques, offer advice to newbies, and spread their knowledge. Members can even post projects they are working on to get feedback on.
2. Psdtuts+ is a hugely popular blog that every Photoshop | Photoshop user should know about. Not only is the sheer volume of tutorials impressive, but the quality of each and every one of them is what keeps readers loyal. Psdtuts+ also features monthly roundups of the Web. These include tutorials, inspirational pieces, freebies, and other Photoshop-related things. Articles and interviews with Photoshop experts and professionals are also posted frequently.
3. HV-Designs is a very clean and clutter-free blog which features Photoshop tutorials in addition to coding, WordPress, and jQuery tutorials. The Photoshop tutorials are geared more towards the practical needs of a Photoshop user rather than to artistic effects. These tutorials are helpful for beginners looking to get a solid foundation in Photoshop, but will also teach more advanced users some new things. Most of the Photoshop tutorials on this blog have be posted with web designers in mind, but they are equally useful for other users.
4. Photoshop Tutorials is, as the name suggests, completely dedicated to Adobe Photoshop tutorials. Unlike many tutorial sites, this collection of tutorials teaches effects and techniques you will not find anywhere else. Photoshop downloads, such as gradients, textures, and brushes are available for free. The page of creative inspiration includes interviews with established designers and giveaways for those who are interested. The really nice thing about this blog is that it is not trying to be sleek or flashy. It is what it is.
How to design a house with SketchUp?
We will use SketchUp to design this house and again we will cover all the rules we explained before as we learn how to design. Remember it's not enough to learn how to use this software. You need to understand the principles and elements of design.
SketchUp is very user-friendly and it's easy, You can start designing immediately after you install the small software. In no time, I'll teach you how to design impressive floor plans and 3D models.
In this tutorials series, we'll discuss everything you need to know about designing your house, and not only how to use this software.
There will be basic to advanced tutorials which are divided to sections. These tutorial help you get started with the SketchUp and present the fundamental concepts Such as:
? How SketchUp works.
? An overview of the concepts and terms used in SketchUp .
? How to perform common tasks in SketchUp.
This lesson provides information on how to get started with the SketchUp tutorials, including of course a detailed instructions of the house design in the tutorials.
NOTE You may find it helpful to print the tutorials to make it easier to reference the instructions as you work in SketchUp.
What is in the Tutorials?
In these tutorials, you learn how to design a house in SketchUp. The house you design was a product of a design competition in Vancouver, Canada. This house will also be used as the model in the more advanced tutorials.
The tutorials are designed to follow the typical architectural house design workflow. You complete the following activities:
? We will establish a site and also lay it out.
? We will add basic building elements, such as walls, floors, ceilings, and roofs.
? We will add more detailed elements, such as stairs, kitchens, rooms, and furniture.
? Refine the building elements (skylights, solar shades, and interior finishes).
? Create schedules, views, and sheets to document the project.
? Finally, we will prepare presentation views such as 3D photo realistic renderings and Walk-Through animations.
The First Phase
For the surgical placement of the Implant | , your mouth will be thoroughly numbed with local anesthesia.
An incision is made in your gums where the implant will go to expose the bone underneath.
A specialized (but quiet) drill will then be used to create a space for the implant in the bone.
The implant itself is then screwed in place with either a hand tool or the same implant drill used to create the initial space.
After the implant is snugly in place, a second component will be screwed into the implant itself and will remain in place during the healing process.
The gums are closed over the implant and a stitch or two may be placed.
Over the course of the next few months, the implant becomes securely attached to the bone.
The Second Phase
The second phase starts with the re-exposure of the implant. Another small incision is made in your gums to expose the implant unless there was a separate component placed on the implant that sits above the gums.
A small extension is placed on the implant for any impression taken. This component is what the lab will use to fit your new crown.
Your dentist will then start a series of appointments to make your new implant crown. Though some of the steps might be different in your case, they usually include making impressions of your teeth. From these impressions, they will make precise working models of your mouth, which are carefully mounted for proper alignment. Your crown is fabricated on these models.
The last step is the final placement of your new crown. In some cases, depending on which tooth is being restored, the dentist may want to try in the new crown before it is completely finished to check the shape and fit of it in your mouth.
How Will I Care for My Implant?
Your new implant tooth must be cared for and checked regularly, just like your natural teeth. Brush and floss your implant tooth as recommended by your dentist or dental hygienist. See your dentist every six months, or more frequently if so advised.
What Are the Potential Complications?
Infection around the surrounding bone and gums
Your body's rejection of the dental implant
Bone loss around the dental implant
Your dental implant may fail to adhere to the bone
The Danger of Electrical Shock
Electric power does a tremendous amount of work. But because it’s such a powerful force, we need to be very careful with it.
People are injured or killed every year by electricity. The reasons are almost always carelessness, a faulty appliance or tool, or a lack of knowledge about how electricity works. You can reduce electrical injuries and death by doing three things:
Understanding how electricity works
Recognizing potential electrical hazards
Learning about safety devices that prevent shock.
Electricity naturally flows to the Habilitation | earth, or to ground, through anything that will conduct electrical current. There are some compounds, like wood and glass, that are not good conductors of electricity. But electricity will pass through the human body, sometimes with fatal results, trying to get to ground. If an appliance or tool is faulty or has a shorted wire, for example, the electric current may try to find another path to ground. That’s why electrical systems should always be grounded. A safe path to ground for electricity is away from your body and confined within whatever piece of electrical equipment you’re using.
photo of electrical outletThree-Prong Plugs. You may have noticed that the electrical outlets in most homes now have three-wire receptacles that accommodate electrical cords with three-prong plugs. The third prong provides a path to ground along which the electric current travels. Most major appliances, such as stoves, refrigerators, and computers, have three-prong plugs, meaning they are grounded. Most older homes do not have three-wire receptacles. If yours does not, you should have an electrician rewire the home to accommodate the three-prong plugs. Although three-prong adapters can be purchased, they are not recommended for permanent use. Also remember never to clip the third prong off a plug to make it fit a two-hole outlet.
GFCI. Another device that’s commonly used to prevent shocks in the home is a ground fault circuit interrupter. These are usually installed in wall-mounted receptacles in areas where electricity and water are most likely to come in contact, such as bathrooms, laundry rooms, kitchens, and outdoors. They have buttons that are marked TEST and RESET. GFCIs monitor electric current and can switch a circuit off before injury occurs. Most electric hair dryers come equipped with GFCIs on their plugs. Consumers are advised to consult a qualified licensed electrician about installing these safety devices, although many newer homes have them already.
It’s advisable to use tools and appliances with three-prong grounding plugs, even if you have a GFCI. Portable, or temporary, GFCIs are available, but they should not be used as a permanent alternative to wall-mounted, receptacle-type GFCIs.
photo of three prong electrical outletOverloaded receptacles. Avoid overloading a receptacle or an electrical circuit. Fires can occur when overloaded wires become hot. Most receptacles are designed for two plugs only.
Double-insulated tools. Double-insulated tools help protect against electrical shock. An electrical shock in a tool can occur, for example, because of worn wiring that lets bare wire touch the frame of an appliance. Double-insulated tools have an outer casing of plastic or some other nonconductive material and are the only tools with two-wire plugs sold today that are approved by the Underwriters Laboratories (UL).Home contact